Monday, February 28, 2011

ISA HK/China --- 国际通行的樹木種/移植方法

国内朋友请使用翻译软件阅读本文 (。

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Dear Station Members,

Attached is another translated article from ISA research on Planting/Transplanting Landscape Trees. This article has already been accepted by major newspapers in China for publication. Station Members are welcomed to distribute it within their own channels to China for education purpose with our permission.

Prime ISA concepts in rootball size, planting hole dimension, soil backfill, watering, staking & mulching are discussed in brief, to arouse response from China readers. We do not want to throw in complicated details at this stage. This may confuse the audience. We shall save that for our future seminars in China.

China has been practicing the horticultural methods of selecting "root-bound" nursery stocks produced in containers for Tree Planting. "Root-bound" trees would have minimum Transplant Shock due to the roots not disturbed during the planting process. It will give "Instant Effect". However, they are also known to be associated with Girdling Roots, which will strangle or topple the tree when mature. Pot Plants are produced in "root-bound" because they do not grow tall & live long. Trees will. This concept from horticulture has ruined Tree Planting in our territory for years, & hardly anybody has exposed it in the past.

Research has not confirmed that Soil Amendment with organic matters, hormones, water-retainers & other compounds would definitely help Tree Establishment. Unlike smaller plants in pots, tree roots will outgrow in the surrounding soil within a week, if the weather condition is favourable. The "potting mix" in the backfill will soon become useless, & is liable to create instability due to its soft texture. This "potting mix" concept from horticulture has again confused landscapers to waste funds to demand procedures which may not benefit trees.

Fertilizers can be a killer for newly emerged roots. Higher concentration can be a lethal dosage. ISA Best Management Practice does not recommend Pre-fertilizing in planting pits, but to analyze the needs of the tree after planting to formulate the correct dosage. Pot Plants frequently put in pre-fertilizers in the "potting mix" to encourage growth. They usually grow faster than trees, but die equally faster. Their life span is short. Trees have evolved in their millions of years on Earth to grow in most soil, rich or poor. Trees in general do not need much fertilization. Therefore, we tend to mix up horticulture with Arboriculture again in Tree Fertilization.

Staking is a temporary measure internationally. Prolong staking will reduce Tree Taper to produce weak stamina, & discourage root spread. Staking a tree forever is like propping a healthy person with stretcher to walk around everyday. What would happen if we remove the stretcher? The person would fall, because his muscles have degenerated due to the use of the stretcher. Say if we don't do that to a human, what reason should we do that for trees? We should demand a scientific reason for staking a tree forever.

This article written in simple language has resolved many riddles of Tree Planting for our brothers & sisters from their traditional practices. It may ring a bell & wake some of them to re-think what Mother Nature requires. Arboriculture is a scientific discipline. If anyone does not agree with Mother Nature, let's see who'll make the rules.

best regards,

Sammy Au

President / Station Manager
Registered Consulting Arborist no. RCA#497 (
Independent Practicing Arborist no. IPA-010908 (
ISA Certified Arborist / Certified Tree Worker no. HK-0174AT (

"Providing treatment without in-depth diagnosis & research support is professional misconduct. "

"Casual tree assessor delivers wanton tree assessment. Mother Nature makes the rules."


附件是另一篇翻译文章,主题是本会对 "园林树木种/移植"的研究。这篇文章已被各中国主要报章接受并将在国内出版。本分会欢迎各会员在我们的许可下,透过自己的渠道分发到中国各地以作教育用途。


国内在选择苗木时一般倾向采用生长在苗盆内的苗木,因为这些苗木的根系在移植时将受到最小的影响,提供移植成功的 "即时表象"。但是,这些苗木的根系由于受苗盆的限制,一般都会出现 盘绕根 的问题,当树木逐渐成长时,容易出现根系互相盘绕绞杀及树干倾倒的问题。盆栽植物根部受限并无太大的问题,因为它们不如树木般会长高和长寿。但是此概念运用在苗木生产上却几乎毁了我们在树木种植上的努力,而过去没有人发现。

研究还没有证实使用 泥土添加剂 如有机物质、激素、保水剂及其他化合物一定可帮助苗木移植后的复原。不像生长在盆栽的小植物,树木根系在适合的天气中,可以在一周内长离泥土添加剂的有效范围,进入原土里面。在回填土中使用的各种泥土添加剂将很快变得无用,而其松软的质地亦很容易造成不稳定的土壤。这种使用各种添加物的园艺概念再次混淆业者,令他们浪费资金去执行可能不利于树木生长的程序。

肥料 可以成为新生树根的杀手,高浓度的肥料往往是致命的。ISA的最佳处理并不建议在苗木种植前在树穴施肥,而是在分析树木在种植后的需要而制定正确的剂量。盆栽植物经常会在新盘内预先加入肥料以鼓励生长。它们的生长速度一般比树木快,但却死得快一些,因为它们的寿命很短。树木在数百万年的进化中渐渐适应,可以生长在无论肥沃或贫瘠的各种土壤,故此树木一般并不需要太多的肥料。在以往, 我们往往在为树木施肥上混淆了园艺及树艺的概念。

种后支撑 是一项国际通行的临时措施。但是,长期的支撑会减少 干粗收窄(Taper)并造成长弱的主干,及阻碍根系的发展。长期依赖支撑的树木就有如一个健康的人每天以助行器走动。当我们移走助行器时会发生什么事呢?该人将会跌倒,因为他的肌肉已经在每天使用助行器中退化。如果我们不会对一个人这样做,我们又有什么理由要这样对待我们的树木呢?如果要长期为树木提供支撑,请提出科学的理由!

这篇文章用简单的语言, 解释了许多有关树木种植在国内传统处理上的问题。它可能敲响了警钟:唤醒国内的兄弟姊妹们重新思考什么是大自然的要求。树艺是一门科学。如果有人不同意大自然,让我们看看到底是谁制定规则。


国际树木学会 中国地区分会 会长

顾问树艺师号 RCA#497 (
独立执业树艺师号 IPA-010908 (
注册树艺师 / 注册攀树师号 HK-0174AT (



(以上由莊俊榮 注册树艺师 /市政专家号 HK-0009AM 翻绎。一切内容以英文版本为准。)


国际树木学会 中国地区分会 会长                                       欧永森

顾问树艺师号 RCA#497                独立执业树艺师号 IPA-010908

注册树艺师/注册攀树师号 HK-0174AT

国际树木学会(INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF ARBORICULTURE,简称ISA) 经过数十年的研究论证,建立了一套基本树木栽种方法作为参考指南,与目前香港/国内现行使用的方法略有不同。

(A) 栽种一般1 cm–10 cm 干粗的园林绿化树

ISA 建议采用的园林绿化树的干粗最好不要超过10 cm,因为在此粗度以下的树木生命力一般比较旺盛,移植后复原较快;如果移植时土球也能符合ISA 标准的话(10 x干粗),用树基本上很少会产生『移植痴呆症』。

ISA的研究同时发现移栽同品种干粗10 cm以下的苗和移栽10 cm以上的苗同时相比,经过几年生长后,10 cm以下的苗的最终粗度竟比10 cm以上的苗为粗!这点与大苗和小苗的移除根系比例有关。





b.树洞的深度应比土球的深度浅5 cm到10 cm,方便土球少量露出泥面。为何如此?因为树木本身有重量,在新根发出以前,土球在浇水后可能浸降少许,刚好平衡凸出土面部份。 也许土球可能是放在实土上面而不会浸降,但由于大部份新根都是长于离土表以下的30 cm,对喜欢氧气和怕泡水窒息的新根发展,这绝对有利无害。 ISA的研究指出,只要浇水充足,如此浅种1 cm-2 cm的土球在根系发展方面会更健康,复原速度会更快速。


ISA 建议回填土时候只采用从树洞挖出的原土, 无须混合任何泥土添加剂,例如有机物、肥料、保水剂、激素等等,这点与香港/国内现行做法非常不同。 ISA 的研究指出,泥土添加剂对发根作用不大,况且新根长出后, 没多久就会长离泥土添加剂的有效范围,进入原土里面,令添加剂从基本上失去效用。如果新根不愿长进原土向外伸展,只仃留在泥土添加剂的范围里打圈,很容易便造成 ‘盘根现象',为日后大树倒塌创造机会。此外, 加入添加剂的泥土密度会与原土不一致,容易导致水分分布不均,造成偏生根系,对整树的日后发展不好。所以ISA 建议除非原土性质特差,否则不用混进添加剂,或是将添加剂使用的范围扩达至日后成长树冠以下,才是有效的做法。

3. 覆盖物 (MULCH)

ISA 建议在移植后,土面应该放上7 cm至10 cm厚的覆盖物,而此等覆盖物又以已发酵的粗糙有机物为佳,例如刨木片、谷糠、 树皮等等。在西方国家,特别是北美洲,很多时候采用新鲜刚切碎的树木残渣来作覆盖物, 这些没有发酵过的有机物也很少发生烧根或抢氮等现象。 铺放覆盖物的范围要达到成长树冠边缘的垂直线下以达到最佳效果,又以离开树干约5 cm-10 cm为好,以减少根颈产生腐烂的机会。


4. 种后支撑

ISA 认为采用树木支撑只会减少干粗收窄(TAPER)及根系伸展的发展,所以建议在非用不可的情况下才使用支撑。 因为支撑只是临时措施,所以很少使用金属材料,而以廉价木材为主。

支撑的插土部份要以不损害根系为目的, 接触树干的部份要采用软性宽带材料,以减少对树皮作出的机械伤害, 安装的时候要越低越好,方便建立干粗收窄。


5. 种后施肥

ISA 认为应该先检测种树区的原土的含肥量, 才决定种后应该施肥与否。



(B) 栽种一般10 CM干粗以上的园林绿化树

与香港/国内现行做法不同,ISA 不建议采用或移植10 CM以上干粗的大树作为园林绿化使用,主要原因有以下两点:

1. 操作困难

移植10 cm以上干粗的大树时,如果采用达标土球(10 X 径粗),则非必须使用机械搬运不可,否则用人力及 ‘土办法'来拖拖拉拉, 必然对包装土球造成极大损害。 如果把土球随意缩小,成活率和复原速度肯定下降,根本得不偿失。

如果要挖标准树洞 (3 x 土球直径),周边设施必须配合,建筑物、管道、道路等等都要让路。还要考虑大树日后够否生长空间,以免维修增添麻烦。


2. 复原困难


ISA 过去的研究指出,在温带地区,移植成年树的复原时间大概是每干粗2.5 CM就须时一年,这等如移植一棵25 CM干粗的成年树,它的复原时间可能长达10年。


以上两点是从商业角度作出考虑。 假如为了某些原因而非采用成年树不可的话,移植时候要注意以下几点:

1. 修剪


ISA 的研究发现,如此造法不单对复原速度毫无帮助,反而导致日后枝条容易产生腐烂 (DECAY),生根缓慢和树体健康慢慢走下坡。


ISA 建议如果须要修剪树冠的话,应该把枝条的切除量减到最少,以保持叶片数量和树木干架的结构完整, 但枯、病、死枝则一定要切除。

修剪的时候,要采用正确的剪法 (见日后发表文章'国际通行的树木修剪方法'),而且切口无须涂上保护液(SEALANT),因为ISA 的研究发现保护液根本作用不大,反而助长腐烂产生。

2. 土球



土球如需接受断根处理,要通过几个月的稳定期,包装良好和经常保持湿润的情况下, 再选择合适天气时候搬移,而且最好在当天内完成。

*           *           *           *           *           *

不管设计有多好,苗木在移植前质量有多高,如果栽种方法不理想,最终的效果也是徒劳无功。 合理的栽种方法是保持苗木长期健康发展的关键,也可以大量减省日后维修保养的开支。


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