Thursday, February 10, 2011

ISA HK/China --- 国际通用树木规格

国内朋友请使用翻译软件阅读本文 (http://translate.google.com.hk/?hl=en&tab=wT#enzh-CN)。

*** Our weekly Station Mail is for the information of Station Members only, but Station Mail has given up copyright & can be freely circulated. For administrative reasons, comments from outsiders are usually not entertained & may be circulated within our system locally & overseas. Please note Station Mail is sometimes given in Blog at http://isahkchina.blogspot.com , although images are usually not attached due to size. ***

Dear Station Members,

Attached is another translated article on International Tree Standards given to major newspapers in China during the Chinese New year period. It is the first time ever such an article in depth that the editors have agreed to publish within their domain. This will freshen up the readers in China.

ISA HK/China takes understanding & accepting the quality standards for urban trees as a beginning in Arboriculture, in a place so untouched with international tree practices in the past. Tree design, pruning, maintenance, inspection, risk assessment & protection would try to achieve 'good' trees of health & structure. Without the Tree Standards, how can we work towards the goal?

Once our brothers & sisters accept the international tree standards, they will try to compare their existing trees with quality trees of the world. Being ever so pragmatic, they will find out the many faults of the current tree design & maintenance. Queries, probing & discussions will follow. Here in ISA HK/China, we are waiting await for that. What makes ISA strong from any other arboricultural institute in the world, is our research abilities. Our research come from around the world. It is truly 'international'. We shall let our brothers & sisters be aware of that when they approach us. This will flare ISA in China.

The Station Manger is working hard on other articles in the line to benefit our brothers & sisters a stone throw away. He speaks Mandarin as fluent as his English, & understands China like the back of his hand. He also has excellent connection with the China media & relevant authorities, with his 32 years of dealings in China. This gives ISA HK/China a tremendous edge in our push to bring ISA over there.

If anyone thinks he/she is fit to join in our China Committee, mainly to spread the load for translation at present, please kindly drop us a line. The work will always be in a hurry & sporadic, but your name will go whenever our messages go. This gives you an exposure in its best.

China is big enough to accommodate many. May those pioneers reap their sow later, as China will be a slow starter. However, once started, China will be a charging bull. China also remembers pioneers as a tradition. This happened with the Cold Hardy Palms in the 1990s, when the Station Manger was the first person to develop that in China. Now Cold Hardy Palms are everywhere in China. ISA will be next.

Come & join us if you would. We can take in 2 to 3 more at present, & many more once China begins to heat up.

best regards,

Sammy Au
Station Manager
Registered Consulting Arborist no. RCA#497 (http://isahkchina.blogspot.com/2010/12/isa-hkchina-first-rca-in-asia.html)
Independent Practicing Arborist no. IPA-010908 (http://isahkchina.blogspot.com/2010/04/isa-hkchina-hk-tree-news-14410-report.html)
Certified Arborist / Certified Tree Worker no. HK-0174AT (www.isa-arbor.com)

"Treatment without in-depth diagnosis & research backup is professional mal-practice. "


"Casual tree assessor gives wanton tree assessment. Mother Nature makes the rules."
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各位会员,

附件是另一篇在农历新年期间己传送给各大中国报章去发表的翻译文章。这也是远年来第一次编辑们同意在其报章刊登有这样深度的文章。这将令中国读者感到焕然一新。

在过去,中国大陆的树木管理末能与国际惯例接轨,本分会认为只有理解与接受市区树木的规格标准,才能导致树艺学发展的开端。合适的树木设计、修剪、维护、检查、风险评估及保护将成就健康和结构良好的树木。没有树木规格标准,树艺工作又能如何达标?

一旦我们的同行们接受国际树木规格标准,他们会比较自家的树木与世界上的优质树木,他们将在目前树木种植及维护中找出很多缺点,问题与讨论将随之而来。对此,本分会正热切等待其来临。当我们的同行接触我们时,我们将让他们知道,是什么让国际树木学会在树艺学上这般强大,正是我们的研究能力。 我们的研究来自世界各地。这是真正的“国际”组织。 ISA将会在中国发扬光大。

本分会会长正在努力翻译其他文章以造福我们的国内同行。 他可以操流利的普通话,亦对中国十分了解。在过去三十二年与中国的交易中,他更与中国的媒体和有关当局建立了非常良好的联系。这将使本分会在推动国际树木学会在国内的发展有着巨大的帮助。

如果您认为阁下适合加入我们的"中国委员会",主要以分担目前繁重的翻译工作,烦请连络我们。这项工作将会是赶急的及零星的,但您的名字将出现在我们的信息当中,亦会给您带来最佳的发展机会。

中國的市場很大,大到足以容納很多人。開拓者們的收穫在開始時並不會十分顯著,因為中國是一個緩慢的啟動器,但是,一旦開動起来,收穫的增長將如狂牛一般奔前。中國有傳統去記下每一個開拓者,這發生在上世纪九十年代,本分會會長是第一個人在中國大陸開發 "耐寒棕櫚" 的市場,而現在,整個中國都可找到耐寒棕櫚。国际树木学会將是下一個被发展起来。

目前本 "中國委員會" 尚有兩至三個空缺, 請加入我們。

敬祝安康

国际树木学会 中国地区分会 会长
欧永森
顾问树艺师号 RCA#497
(http://isahkchina.blogspot.com/2010/12/isa-hkchina-first-rca-in-asia.html)
独立执业树艺师号 IPA-010908 (http://isahkchina.blogspot.com/2010/04/isa-hkchina-tree-news-14410-report.html)
注册树艺师 / 注册攀树师号 HK-0174AT (www.isa-arbor.com)

“不深入诊断和参照研究来批出处方,是专业失当。”


“速成出来的树木评估员,只会作出胡乱的树木评估。大自然会决定成败。”


(以上由莊俊榮 注册树艺师 /市政专家号 HK-0009AM 翻绎。一切内容以英文版本为准。)


国际通用树木规格

国际树木学会 中国地区分会 会长 欧永森
顾问树艺师号 RCA#497                 独立执业树艺师号 IPA-010908
注册树艺师 / 注册攀树师号 HK-0174AT

国际树木学会 (INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF ARBORICULTURE, 简称 ISA) 存在一套客观公正的树木规格标准建议,应用于园林绿化设计施工方面。世界上不少国家的园林树木标准都喜欢参照ISA的建议标准来作参考,较多人熟悉的包括有英国标准 (BRITISH STANDARD) 和美国标准 (ANSI Z60.1 2004)。 香港和广东的树木标准主要参照澳洲标准,这又与当年港英政府主要采用澳洲标准有关,因为澳洲是英联邦中主要大国,而其气侯与香港较为接近。

本文所述的 ISA 树木规格建议,主由参考以下文獻写出,可供读者详用参考:

(1) ANSIz60.1-2004
(2) Arboriculture-Integrated Management of Landscape Trees, Shrubs & vines, 4th edition 2004 (Harris, Clark & Matheny)
(3) Arborists’Certification Study Guide 2001 (ISA)

(A) ISA 对使用园林树木的建议规格:


1. 必须要有明显的中央主干 (CENTRAL LEADER)

中央主干俗称树干,是所有分干的接汇处,是在风霜雨雪之时整棵树木承受重力的支持平面。研究指出'主干树'比‘非主干树'在承受外力之时,其结构性表现特强,抗力较高,这也是为何木棉的抗风性比榕树要好。

许多树木在经过人为修剪之后,会自然长出双主干或多主干,ISA要求在整株树木自然高度的2/3以下不能出现双主干或多主干的现象,以免影响其抗风能力。

2. 必须要有 60% 以上的 ‘ 活冠比' (LIVE CROWN RATIO)

‘活冠比' 是指有叶片枝条的高度与整株树木自然高度的比例。举例说,某棵树的自然高度是 10米,而离地面 4米 才有第一枝带叶片的分干长出,这等如此树从地面往上 4米 都只有主干,没有分干。此树的 ‘活冠比' 的计算方法是: 6米 / 10米 = 60 % 活冠比

ISA 认为 ‘活冠比' 在 60% 以上的树木才有足够的叶片去保持此树的正常健康生长,在此以下的树木因为叶片不足而会产生种种生长障碍,例如抗病虫能力低、发根困难、难于开花结果等等。 ISA又认为 '活冠比'在 60% 以下的树木的抗风能力较差,又以单干高球型的树木为甚,此类树木在未完全扎根之前容易随风左摇右摆,从而难以长出新根,容易倒伏。

达到 60% ‘活冠比' 的树木,一般来说会有超过 50% 的叶片长于 2/3 的下部分干,树冠形状有如眼泪滴珠,有利于整株树木结构来抵御强风。

3. 于接合点,分干粗度不超过主干粗度的 50%

树木的主干在往上生长的时候会不断长出横生分干枝条。ISA要求于主干和这些分干的接合之处,分干的粗度不超过主干的粗度的 50%,也就是说长出的分干的粗度在主干粗度的一半以下,而以1/3最为理想。为何ISA 会有如此要求?这是因为研究指出如果分干粗度不达主干粗度50%的话,这个接合点会特别强韧,在风霜雨雪当中不容易折断。树木最大的天敌就是风力,没有良好接口的枝干容易于风中脱落。

4. 分枝分干的布局要求

(a) 在主干里,上一层的分干与下一层的分干的距离大约在全树自然高的 5%。举例说,假如一棵树的自然高度是 10米,则其理想上下层分干距离是 0.5米。

(b) 每层的分干应成螺旋楼梯型状从下往上排列分布,上一层的分干不该与下一层的分干排列在同一方向,造成上下重叠。

(a)与(b)两项要求主要考虑到整株树木重量的平均分布与及枝干在风中抗力的安全性。一株结构良好的大树应该好像一棵巨大的盆景。其实盆景艺术也只不过是一棵大树的缩影。

5. 主干和分干呈现 '干粗收窄' (TAPER)

'干粗收窄' 是指条干的粗度从头端开始,慢慢顺序的往末段收窄,常见的竹荀就是例子之一。物理学告诉我们如果一棵树的主干有若竹荀般往上收窄,其抗风能力一定会比只有平均粗度的主干树木强力的多,在风中不会容易弯曲折断。按照同样道理,分枝干如果也存在 ‘干粗收窄',分枝干同样会抗风力强。有 ‘干粗收窄'的主干树由于结构性强,承重能力高,往往能够衍生更多枝条和更会长高。

6. 良好的根部系统

一般人购买树木的时候往往花很多精力观察树木的地上部份,而忽略了很重要的地下部份。地下部份主要指根系,没有良好的根部系统会注定苗木移栽的失败。

(a) 地栽苗

ISA 要求根系必须平均分布于主干的周围,而不是边大边小,时有时无。根系还要最少分布到树冠周边的投影线下,以确定有足够支撑能力。在良好的泥土环境中,根系应达 0.6米 至 1米 深度。根系的分布应从主干呈放射状向外伸展,而绝不产生 ‘盘根现象' (GIRDLING ROOT)。'盘根现象' 是指某些大根缠绕着主干下部环绕生长,日后对主干下部造成收握现象,慢慢破坏其生理结构,从而令到树木在种下几年后才被风力推倒。在国外,由于'盘根现象'的产生而导致大树倒塌的案例非常普遍。

(B) 容器栽苗

容器是指苗盆、苗袋或任何用来生产苗木的盛栽器具,不管其装容方式是位于地上部或地下部。容器生产的优点是移栽时候不须要大量断根,但它也有缺点。

如果一棵树木在容器里面生长时间过长,其根系因为不能往外伸展,很容易便长出 '盘根现象',造成种后倒伏。由此可见,容器苗只有很短的 ‘货架寿命' (SHELF LIFE),必须在根系长满之时进行移栽,以免产出 ‘盘根现象'。ISA 对容器栽苗除了包括地栽苗的要求以外,会特别留意 '盘根现象' 的产生。

此外,容器栽苗的用土最好与日后移植使用的泥土性质接近,不要选用无土栽培的容器栽苗直接种植到田土里面,因为可能产生排斥而不发根。

(B) 选购 ISA 建议树木规格要注意的地方:

1.苗木的生产方法

如果选用的是容器栽苗,必须注意根部有否产生 ‘盘根现象'。如果容器栽苗是埋在地下生产的话,必须注意根部有否长出容器之外;如果是有的话,则此容器苗应当作地栽苗来处理。

如果选用的是地栽苗,最好先作断根处理。研究发现地栽苗在移植后的成活率一般比容器苗为高和复原速度为快,这可能与生产用土有关。

2.树干及枝条

a. 如果选用单干树,则主干在用手摇动的时候干底只能摇摆在 5度 之内,这点决定此树的札根稳定性。如果选用的单干树呈多主干,又此树能于少量修剪之后能够改为单主干,则此树仍可以被接受,但必须经过树艺师监定同意。

b. 干身不能有大面积的切口或明显的外力损坏,切口直径要在干径的 10% 以下,外力损坏表面的长度或直径要在 50mm 以下,以确保干枝有自我修复能力。

c. 树干下部的临时枝直径不能超过主干粗度的 20%,以免日后剪除时伤口过大,难以修复。

d. 上下层枝条不直线重叠;250mm 以上主干粗的树,上下层枝条距离应在 450mm 左右,较小的树应在 150mm 至 450mm 之间。

e. 分干枝条应以螺旋楼梯型状由下往上平均分布。

f. 分干枝条的直径要在主干直径的 ½ 以下。

g. 上下层分干枝条不会相互碰着摩擦,以免产生伤口。

h. 主干和分干都没有产生 ‘树包皮' 现象(INCLUDED BARK)。 ‘树包皮'是指当两条树干于同一发生点并列生长之时,接触处的树皮在两干之间被含包起来。'树包皮' 现象令两干产生薄弱接口,也令其中一干容易被外力撕裂。

i. 各干枝接口角度不会过窄,一般达到 30度 以上,以避免枝条容易在强风中断裂。

3.树冠

a. 树冠必须园浑饱满,不能边大边小,边有边缺。

b.不同主干直径的最低树冠直径为:

干粗 = 25mm , 冠径 = 1米

         = 50mm , = 1.5米

         = 125mm , = 3米

c. 合理的根冠比;由于树种各有不同,这点一般由树艺师来决定。

d. 叶片健康,符合正常颜色和大小,没有病虫害。

e. 如果全树只有 5% 以下的叶片有黄化脱落或小量病虫害,经树艺师监定同意后,依然 可以采用。

4.根部

a. 土球的直径要在干径的 10倍 左右,等如干粗每增加 25mm,土球直径将会增加 250mm,又以增加 300mm 最为标准。为何如此?研究指出挖苗时,通常有多达 95% 的根部被遗留在土中。所以土球越大,能带走的根就越多,移苗的成活率也就越高,复原速度也越快。此 1:10主干与土球的比例适用于地栽苗和容器栽苗。

b. 长势健康,新根呈奶白色放射状往外分布。

c. 没有缺陷性根系,例如 ‘J' 状根;没有 ‘盘根现象'。如果采用容器苗,必须没有达干粗 20% 以上的根长出容器以外,以免断根移植后产生 ‘移植痴呆症'。

d. 土球必须札实坚固,不能松散,不能故意塞土进去来加大土球包装。测试土球有否被填土加大,可以采用 ‘推干法'。先把土球固定,然后轻推主干,如果整株推动,证明干根一致。假如干动而土球不动,证明上下分离,包装袋里可能曾被加土。

5.其他

a. 供应的苗木不管是地栽苗或容器栽苗,搬移之前都应该能独立站稳,不须支架撑托。如果须要支架撑托的话,证明其根系尚未发达,不能采用。

b. 采购的苗木最好没有刚施过肥,应等待肥效已过才移栽。


从上述可见,ISA 的建议树木规格是非常合理和全面,每项要求都是经过几十年的研究、探讨和经验累积而成,并非简单的按照某些人或某些机构的喜好来作出决定。

树木种类千变万化,某些树种的自然长态很难达到ISA 要求,故此ISA的树木规格并没有硬性规定到所有的树木种类上,只是适用于一般的园林苗木而已。若要坚持采用特别树种,最好先与树艺师或其他专家商量研究,以免种后制造麻烦。

目前香港/国内的用苗者一般只检查树木的地上部,又以叶片的多少和颜色来决定质量,很少关注支干结构,不介意树身的外力损害,不要求足量土球,不细心检查根系,普遍认为使用前好看的树,移植后照样茁壮。如此用苗的后果是不言而喻,有目共睹。他们不知道叶片纯粹是临时性器官,可长可掉,而支干结构才是令树木长存久有的永久性组织。达标的支干结构和发达的根系令树木抗风力强,而茂密的叶冠并不代表此树已有达标的支干结构。

树艺是一门科学,与园艺非常不同。树艺很少讲究观点与角度,而是根据研究、事实、数据、统计和经验总结而成,ISA 每年发表的树木研究报告超过百篇。假如一棵大树要倒下来,不论谁去讲情说理,陈规道法,依然改变不了它的命运。2005年8月中旬位于香港政府总部的百年老树,由于大限已到,也不惧权贵,在风雨中照样倒下,造成了尴尬场面。

树艺学的发展就是这样的完全按照大自然的规律,从失败当中吸收经验,从不明当中寻找答案。

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